The Royal Society Report on Geoengineering
The Royal Society is a Fellowship of the world’s most eminent scientists and is the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence. They claim to aim to expand the frontiers of knowledge by championing the development and use of science, mathematics, engineering and medicine for the benefit of humanity and the good of the planet. The Royal Society has published the findings of a major study into geoengineering the climate using various methods for the stated goal of cooling the planet. The following is the complete report with additional emphasis on solar radiation management/stratospheric aerosol geoengineering. These methods are commonly referred to as chemtrails.
Full report: http://royalsociety.org/Geoengineering-the-climate/
Solar radiation management/stratospheric aerosol geoengineering:
Solar Radiation Management (SRM) techniques, which reflect a small percentage of the sun’s light and heat back into space. These methods act quickly, and so may represent the only way to lower global temperatures quickly in the event of a climate crisis. However, they only reduce some, but not all, effects of what some scientists call the problem of climate change, while possibly creating other problems . They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification.
The following contains some geoengineering basics from the Royal society report:
SUMMARY – Pg XI-XIV
2) SRM: Solar Radiation Management techniques claim to attempt to offset global warming by reducing absorption of solar radiation by techniques which reflect a small percentage of the sun’s light and heat back into space. These methods act quickly, and so may represent the only way to lower global temperatures quickly in the event of a climate crisis. However, they only reduce some, but not all, effects of what some scientists call the problem of climate change, while possibly creating other problems. They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification. SRM is relatively cheap and would implement changes to the climate within a few years. However, SRM would create a delicate balance between increased greenhouse gases and reduced solar radiation. It could inevitably need to be continued for centuries. The governance of geoengineering should be explored by an international body such as the UN Commission for Sustainable Development (Agenda 21 — UN has placed a moratorium on geoengineering). This body should devise a research framework with codes of practice for the scientific community which will include multiple international science organizations providing evidence of feasibility and risk within 10 years. This research body should be transparent to the public regarding environmental, social, and economic impacts and unintended consequences. These international scientific bodies should begin a dialogue to assess public’s current attitudes towards geoengineering.
INTRODUCTION –Pg 1
1.1 Background: Pg 1
· No international consensus on emissions reductions past 2012.
· Global emissions have increased by around 3%/year (rate faster than projected by IPCC).
· Geoengineering is being contemplated claiming to keep temperatures below 2 degrees C by 2100.
1.2 Geoengineering Pg 1
· The only greenhouse gas that geoengineering is focusing on is carbon.
· SRM methods:
Surface based (land or ocean albedo modification
Troposphere based (cloud modification methods, etc.)
Upper atmosphere based (tropopause and above, ie., stratosphere, mesosphere)
1.3 The climate system Pg 1-3
1.4 Climate change and geoengineering—the policy context Pg 4-6
* History of geoengineering studies/experiments
* Consensus between G8 nations and EU that 2 degrees C above preindustrial level is upper limit.
* Climate sensitivity
1.5 Conduct of the study, Pg 6-7:
effectiveness, timeliness, safety, cost, technical and political reversibility.
The following pages contain specific plans and proposals for solar radiation management.
3. Solar radiation management techniques Pg -23
3.1 Introduction Pg-23
Brightening earth’s surface
Introducing reflective matter into atmosphere
3.2 General Characteristics of SRM methods Pg-23-24
* Amount of SRM which would be needed is variable and currently disputed.
* SAG would require more particles than space based SRM due to geography of earth.
* Termination Problem: if suddenly discontinued, there would be a swift rise in temperature.
* SRM would not reduce Carbon.
* There would be indirect effects due to carbon cycle feedbacks.
3.3.3 Stratospheric aerosols Pg- 29-32
* Pros & cons of various aerosols.
* Advanced engineered particles could be designed that had longer lifelines, or that were lofted out of lower stratosphere, or enabling radiative forcing to be concentrated in special locations such as Polar Regions. See… http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/features/2011/05/201151713273937174.html
* Most emphasis has been placed on sulfate aerosols.
* Geoengineering of the stratospheric sulfate layer would require a constant injection of sulfate and/or aluminum oxide for decades or centuries to balance the increased radiative forcing of greenhouse gases.
* Studies have shown that major regional effects could result from sulfate/aluminum oxide geoengineering which could counteract or reinforce those associated with climate change itself.
* SRM would start to reduce temperatures within one year. (Interesting, as most say chemtrails really picked up in 1998 and that’s when global temps stopped rising due to sulfates in atmosphere. See… http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/04/us-climate-sulphur-idUSTRE7634IQ20110704)
* Highest required altitude for SRM would be that needed to access the lower tropical stratosphere.
* Commercial transport aircraft already reach the lower stratosphere.
* Most cost-effective mode of delivery would be a custom built fleet of aircraft.
3.4 Discussion Pg- 34-36
* SAG, depending on location and height of releases may produce a cooling effect that is predominantly local or global.
* Chemical composition of stratosphere may be affected.
* SRM may have direct ecosystem effect; undesirable effects on ozone layer; adverse impacts on precipitation patterns; increased acid rain and exacerbate ocean acidification
3.5 Conclusion 36
* SAG appears to be the most promising
* SAG could be more rapidly developed and implemented that other SRM techniques.
* Impacts on the hydrological cycle, stratospheric ozone, and biosphere would need major research.
While there is no global governance in place to monitor such programs, geoengineers are calling for global governance.
4 Governance 37
4.1 Introduction Pg-37
* Geoengineering may prevent substantial attempts to decrease greenhouse gases.
4.2 Governance, risk and uncertainty Pg-37-39
* A global governing body based on international scientific collaborations such as CERN and the Human Genome Project.
4.3 Ethics Pg 39
4.4 International frameworks Pg 39-41
* There is no global instrument that governs the atmosphere.
4.5 Governance of geoengineering research and development Pg 41-42
4.6 Public and civil society engagement Pg42-44
4.7 Economic factors Pg 44
4.8 Options of Last Resort Pg 44-45
* SRM methods create an artificial and only approximate balance between greenhouse warming and reduced solar radiation which must be maintained actively, potentially for many centuries.
* SRM should not be deployed without a clear and credible exit strategy and in conjunction with mitigation strategies and CDR methods which are sustainable.
4.9 Conclusion Pg 45